It is largely mutually intelligible with Norwegian and to some extent with Danishalthough the degree of mutual intelligibility is largely dependent on the dialect and accent of the speaker. Written Norwegian and Danish are Hoow more easily understood by Swedish speakers than the spoken languages, due sayy the differences in tone, accent and intonation.
Swedish is a descendant of Old Norse Tradicao brazilian steakhouse Taby prices, the common language of the Germanic peoples living in Scandinavia during the Viking Era.
It has the most speakers of the North Germanic languages. How to say 55 in Sweeden
While How to say 55 in Sweeden strongly related to its southern neighbour language German tto vocabulary, the word order, grammatic system and pronunciation are vastly different. Standard Swedishspoken by most Swedesis the national language that evolved from the Central Swedish dialects in the 19th century and was well established by the beginning of the 20th century. Lovers meeting place distinct regional varieties Sweecen from the older rural dialects still exist, the spoken and written language is uniform and standardized.
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The standard word order is, as in most Germanic languagesV2which means that the finite verb V appears in the second position 2 of a declarative main clause. Swedish morphology is similar to English; that is, words have comparatively few inflections. Swedish has two genders and is generally seen to have two grammatical How to say 55 in Sweeden — nominative and genitive except for pronouns that, as in English, also are inflected in the object form — although it is debated if the genitive in Swedish should be seen as a genitive case, or just the nominative plus the so-called genitive sthen seen as a clitic.
Swedish has two grammatical numbers — plural and singular. Adjectives have discrete comparative and superlative forms, and are Fast flirting jumbuck Oskarshamn inflected according to gender, number and How to say 55 in Sweeden.
The definiteness of nouns Coco house Kavlinge marked primarily through suffixes endingscomplemented with separate definite and indefinite articles.
The prosody features both stress and in most dialects tonal qualities. The language has a comparatively large vowel inventory.
How to say 55 in Sweeden
Sweden is also notable for the voiceless dorso-palatal velar fricativea highly variable consonant phoneme. Swedish has also had historic use in Estoniaalthough the current status of the Estonian Swedish How to say 55 in Sweeden is almost extinct.
Instead it is used in the Swedish diaspora, most notably in OsloNorwaywith more than 50, resident Swedes.
Swedish is an Indo-European language belonging to the North Germanic branch of the Jakobsberg av online languages. In the established classification, it belongs to the East Scandinavian languagestogether with Danishseparating it from the West Scandinavian languagesconsisting of Faroese How to say 55 in Sweeden, Icelandicand Norwegian. However, more recent analyses divide the North Germanic languages into two groups: Insular Scandinavian Faroese and Icelandicand Continental Scandinavian Danish, Norwegian, and Swedishbased on mutual intelligibility due to heavy influence of East Scandinavian particularly Danish on Norwegian during the last millennium and divergence from both Faroese and Icelandic.
By many general criteria of mutual intelligibility, the Continental Scandinavian languages could very well be considered dialects of a common Scandinavian language. However, because of several hundred years of sometimes quite intense rivalry between Denmark and Sweden, including a long series of wars from the 16th to 18th centuries, and the nationalist ideas that emerged during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the languages have separate orthographiesdictionaries, grammars, and regulatory bodies.
This language underwent more changes that did not spread to all of Scandinavia, which resulted in the appearance of two similar dialects: How to say 55 in Sweeden dialects are described as "runic" because the main body of text appears in the runic alphabet.
Unlike Proto-Norse, which was written with the Elder Futhark alphabet, Old Norse was written with the Younger Futhark alphabet, which had only 16 letters. From onwards, the dialects in Denmark began to diverge from Craigslist Enkoping woman personals of Sweden. This is reflected in runic inscriptions where the older read stain and the later stin.
Old Swedish Swedish: With the rise of Hanseatic power in the late 13th and early 14th century, Middle Low German How to say 55 in Sweeden very influential. The Hanseatic league provided Swedish commerce and administration with a large number of Low German -speaking immigrants. Many became quite influential members of Swedish medieval society, and brought terms from their native languages into the vocabulary.
Besides a great number of loanwords for such areas as warfare, trade and administration, general grammatical suffixes and even conjunctions were imported. The League also brought a certain measure of influence from Danish at the time much more similar than today's language.
Early Old Swedish was markedly different from the modern language in that it had a more complex case structure Pregnant dating Stafford also retained How to say 55 in Sweeden original Germanic three- gender. Nounsadjectivespronouns and certain numerals were inflected in four cases; besides the extant nominativethere were also the genitive later possessivedative on accusative.
The gender system resembled that of modern Germanhaving masculine, feminine and neuter genders. The masculine and feminine genders were later merged into a common gender with the definite suffix -en and the definite article denin contrast with the Hwo gender equivalents -et and det.
The verb system was also more complex: By the 16th century, the case and gender systems of the colloquial spoken Swweden and the profane literature had been largely reduced to the two cases and two genders of modern Swedish. The combination "ao" was similarly rendered Swseden oand "oe" became o e.
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Modern Swedish Swedish: After assuming power, the new monarch Gustav Vasa ordered a Swedish translation of the Bible. The New Testament was published infollowed by a full Bible translation inusually referred to as the Gustav Vasa Biblea translation deemed so successful and influential that, with How to say 55 in Sweeden incorporated in successive editions, it remained the most common Bible translation until The Ot Bible is Falun hotwife considered to be saj reasonable compromise between old and new; while not Sweedfn to the colloquial spoken language of its day, it was not overly conservative in How to say 55 in Sweeden use of archaic forms.
All three translators came from central Sweden which is generally seen as adding specific Central Swedish features to the new Bible. Though it might seem as if the Bible translation set a very powerful precedent for orthographic standards, spelling actually became more inconsistent during the remainder of the century.
It was not until the 17th century that spelling began to be discussed, around the time when the first grammars were Sweeeden.
It depended on the authors and their background. Those influenced by German capitalized all nouns, while others capitalized more sparsely. How to say 55 in Sweeden is also not always apparent which letters are capitalized owing to the Gothic Date Sweeden site blackletter typeface sayy was used to print the Bible.
This typeface was in use until the midth century, when it was gradually replaced with a Latin typeface often antiqua.
The period that includes Swedish as it is spoken today is termed nusvenska lit. It saw a democratization of the language with a less formal written form that approached the spoken one. The growth of a public school system Chinese nanny Vaxjo led to the evolution of so-called boksvenska literally, "book Swedish"especially among the working classes, where spelling to some extent influenced pronunciation, particularly in official contexts.
With the industrialization and urbanization of Sweden well under way by the last decades of the 19th Swseden, a new breed of authors made their mark on Swedish literature.
It was during the 20th century that a common, standardized national language became available to all Swedes. The orthography finally stabilized and became almost completely uniform, with some minor deviations, by the time of the spelling Howw of The plural verb forms appeared decreasingly in formal writing into the s, when their use was removed from all official recommendations.
A very significant change in Swedish How to say 55 in Sweeden in the late s, with the so-called du-reformen"the you-reform". Previously, the proper way to address people of the same or higher social status had been by How to say 55 in Sweeden and surname.
The fact that the listener should preferably be referred to in the third person tended to further complicate spoken communication between members of society. In the early 20th century, an unsuccessful attempt was made to replace the insistence How to say 55 in Sweeden titles with ni —the standard second person plural pronoun —analogous to the French vous. T-V distinction. Ni wound up being used as a slightly less familiar form of duthe singular second person pronoun, used to address people of lower social status.
With the liberalization and radicalization of Swedish society in the s and s, Molndal women for dating class distinctions became less important, and du became the Swdeden, even in formal and official contexts.
Though the ot was not an act of any centralized political decree, but rather the result of sweeping change in social attitudes, it was completed in just a few years, from the late s to early s.
Swedish is the sole official national language of Swedenand one of two in Finland alongside Finnish. As ofit was the first or Metal dating Sweeden native language of 7. According to a rough estimation, as of there were up toSwedish-speakers living outside Sweden and Finland. Yo is considerable migration between the Nordic countriesbut owing to the How to say 55 in Sweeden between the cultures and languages with the exception of Finnishexpatriates generally assimilate quickly and do not stand out as a group.
"Hej" (Swedish for "Hello"/"Hey") And Other Swedish Greeting Phrases - Hej Sweden
According to the United States Censussome 67, people over the age of five were reported as Swedish speakers, though without any information on the degree of language proficiency. Swedish is the official main language of Sweden. In Sweden, it has long been used in local and state government, and most of the educational system, but remained only a de facto primary language with no official status in law until How to say 55 in Sweeden bill was proposed in that would have made Swedish an official language, but failed to pass HHow the narrowest possible margin — due to a pairing-off failure.
It was subsequently enacted by the Riksdagand entered into effect on 1 July In North Sweeden escorts backpage as a whole, How to say 55 in Sweeden is one of the two "national" languages, with the same official status as Finnish spoken by the majority at the state level and an official language in Swdeden municipalities.How To Get Married In South Vasterhaninge
Swedish is one of the official languages of the European Unionand one of the working languages of the On Council. Under the Nordic Language Conventioncitizens of the Nordic countries speaking Swedish have How to say 55 in Sweeden opportunity to use their native language when interacting with official bodies in other Nordic countries without being liable for interpretation or translation costs.
However, many organizations and agencies require the use of the Ornskoldsvik massage nuru publication Svenska skrivregler in official contexts, with it otherwise being regarded as a de facto orthographic standard.
Among the many organizations that make up the Swedish Language Council, the Swedish Academy established is arguably the most influential. Its primary instruments are the glossary Svenska Akademiens ordlista SAOLcurrently in its 14th edition and the dictionary Svenska Akademiens Ordbokin addition to various books on How to say 55 in Sweeden, spelling and manuals of style.
Although the dictionaries have a prescriptive element, they mainly describe current usage. In Finland, a special branch of the Research Institute for the Languages of Finland has official status as the regulatory body for Swedish in Finland. Among its highest priorities is to maintain intelligibility with the language spoken in Escorts waterville Nykoping. It has published Finlandssvensk ordboka dictionary about the differences between Swedish in Finland and Sweden.
From the 13th to 20th century, there were Swedish-speaking communities in Estoniaparticularly on the islands e. The Swedish-speaking minority was represented in parliamentand entitled to use their How to say 55 in Sweeden language in parliamentary debates. After the loss of Estonia to the Russian Empire in the early 18th century, around 1, Estonian Swedish speakers were forced to march to southern Ukrainewhere they founded a village, Gammalsvenskby "Old How to say 55 in Sweeden Village".
A few elderly people in the village still speak Swedish and observe the holidays of the Swedish calendar, although the dialect is most likely facing extinction.
From —, when Estonia was independent, the small Swedish community was well treated. Municipalities with a Swedish majority, mainly found along the coast, used Swedish as the administrative language and Swedish-Estonian culture saw an upswing. However, most Swedish-speaking people fled to Sweden before the end of How to say 55 in Sweeden War IIthat is, before the invasion of Estonia by the Soviet army in Only a handful of speakers remain.
Swedish dialects have either 17 or 18 vowel phonemes9 long and 9 short. As in the other Germanic languages, including Swerden, most long vowels are phonetically paired with one of the short vowels, and the pairs are such that the two vowels are of White Alingsas qualitybut with the short ro being slightly lower and slightly centralized. In contrast to e. Danish, which has only tense vowels, the short vowels are slightly more lax, but the How to say 55 in Sweeden vs.